The origin of sugar About 8,000 years ago, when it was brought to Indian culture as a garden plant for chewing, sugar’s origins may be traced back to the ancient world. Arkar was the name of the plant. The plant has been grown and utilized for millennia by the Chinese, Greek, Roman, and Persian cultures […]
1. What is ion exchange? Ion exchange was originally a common method for water treatment, but membrane technologies have already fully replaced it in many of its former markets. It still finds usage in industrial applications because it may give high levels of softening and demineralization. The exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between […]
In the production of pharmaceuticals, eight different types of water are used: non-potable, potable/drinking water, purified water, water for injection (WFI), sterile water for injection, sterile water for inhalation, bacteriostatic water for injection, and sterile water for irrigation. To make medicinal items, WFI and purified water are used. Reverse osmosis and/or deionized beds are used […]
Ion exchange resins are insoluble matrix including exchangeable ions. They are good choices as catalysts, especially in the esterification process. Esterification can be considered as one of the most important organic synthesis processes in petrochemical industry. This kind of esters is applicable to produce adhesives, films, aromatic materials, fibers, and plastics.