1. What is ion exchange? Ion exchange was originally a common method for water treatment, but membrane technologies have already fully replaced it in many of its former markets. It still finds usage in industrial applications because it may give high levels of softening and demineralization. The exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between […]
In the production of pharmaceuticals, eight different types of water are used: non-potable, potable/drinking water, purified water, water for injection (WFI), sterile water for injection, sterile water for inhalation, bacteriostatic water for injection, and sterile water for irrigation. To make medicinal items, WFI and purified water are used. Reverse osmosis and/or deionized beds are used […]
Ion exchange resins are insoluble matrix including exchangeable ions. They are good choices as catalysts, especially in the esterification process. Esterification can be considered as one of the most important organic synthesis processes in petrochemical industry. This kind of esters is applicable to produce adhesives, films, aromatic materials, fibers, and plastics.
Isolated from Milk and whey, lactoferrin is a glycoprotein that binds to iron. Its unique structure, which consists of a single polypeptide chain with two binding sites for iron, explains its high affinity for iron. This crucial host defense protein exhibits considerable biological action even in modest amounts. This protein has numerous advantages, such as […]